How To Treat a Thermal Burn – First Aid

1. Cool Burn

  • Hold burned skin under cool (not cold) running water or immerse in cool water until pain subsides.
  • Use compresses if running water isn’t available.


2. Protect Burn

  • Cover with sterile, non-adhesive bandage or clean cloth.
  • Do not apply butter, oil, lotions, or creams (especially if they contain fragrance). Apply a petroleum-based ointment two to three times per day.


Be extra careful when making open wood fires. Never use petroleum/gasoline or any flammable substance to get the fire started. Always ensure that children are supervised wherever an open fire is present. Lastly, be sure that the fire is 100% extinguished and that the coals are cooled down before taking your eyes of your kids! Stepping onto a lump of blazing coal is a huge culprit for serious burning wounds.


3. Treat Pain

  • Give over-the-counter pain reliever such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), or naproxen (Aleve).

4. When to See a Doctor

Seek medical help if:

  • You see signs of infection, like increased pain, redness, swelling, fever, or oozing.
  • The person needs tetanus or booster shot, depending on date of last injection. Tetanus booster should be given every 10 years.
  • The burn blister is larger than two inches or oozes.
  • Redness and pain last more than a few hours.
  • The pain gets worse.
  • The hands, feet, face, or genitals are burned.


5. Follow Up

  • The doctor will examine the burn and may prescribe antibiotics and pain medication.



Typical plumbing concerns for all centers consist of repairing toilet, sink and shower; maintaining piping systems throughout the facility for air, water, and gas; keeping drain systems and waste-water lines open and operating effectively; and maintaining lawn sprinkler, heads, valves, and other fire-safety devices. Keeping up with regulatory requirements.

Health care and non-health care facilities alike should resolve procedures to save water, especially in Cape Town. From both environmental and economic perspectives, it makes good sense to keep an eye on water usage. 

On the other hand, it is popular that the sanitary requirements for hospital environments are far more demanding than those of most non-hospital environments. 

Examining the Scope

In healthcare centers, the variety of plumbing components and plumbing systems is much larger, as is the breadth of devices types, consisting of medical gas systems and piping for air, laughing gas, and oxygen, which must be offered in emergency situation and operating locations, as well as patient spaces.

Health centers’ special requirements include operating a 24-hour-a-day, seven-day-a-week central processing department, where instruments and devices first are cleaned in several washers and disinfectors, then sanitized in lots or perhaps hundreds of individual sterilizers.

Plumbing systems for this central processing must effectively handle water and steam utilized in the cart washers and instrument washer and disinfectors. They must likewise preserve the medical gas systems required for ethylene oxide or hydrogen peroxide utilized in the sterilizers.

A tremendous obstacle for managers is to keep the environment at a high level of tidiness on surfaces, in drinkable water systems, and in the air. They also should lessen contact by patients, caregivers and visitors with the plumbing components utilized by lots of residents lot of times each day.

At the same time, custodial workers and others should subject fixtures to strong concentration of chemicals, such as chlorine bleach and ammonia solutions, to keep a sanitary environment. Fixtures need to be corrosion-resistant to stand up to these severe chemicals and the abrasion of the cleaning procedure. More great plumbing advice is that all medical gas piping, valves and fittings likewise need special care to guarantee the safety and health of clients.


Recommended plumbers for medical / healthcare plumbing

These plumbers in Durban take care of all your medical plumbing requirements. From hospitals, doctors and dentist rooms to healthcare offices.

A Closer Look

Amongst the locations elements that will affect supervisors’ strategies for plumbing system upkeep are the type, age, style and condition of systems and components.

Types of fixtures

In the health care environment, these can include chromium surface areas for its high-corrosion resistance and capability to stand up to repeated abrasion. The approved services in medical facility plumbing fixture specifications consist of one- and two-lever or battery-operated sensor taps and battery-operated sensor flush valves with manual push-button override.

Age and design

The age of fixtures and their style go hand in hand, because older fixtures do not have the circulation attributes of newer ones. For example, older components are most likely to have higher flow rates while more recent designs can save a great deal of water– as much as 50 percent, depending on age and style of the older components.

Older components likewise are more likely to cause splashing, which can lead to wet floors and safety issues, particularly in client locations where they provide a slipping danger for everybody, specifically handicapped patients. More recent taps and flush valves tend to have much better circulation design, which, together with lower circulation volumes, lower splashing and increase security.

Correct system design also is vital. Plumbing systems are prone to severe or poisonous chemicals going into the potable water system via cross-connection or backflow. Plumbing systems that have taps with hose adapters or inlets listed below the water line must have effectively created check valves or vacuum breakers installed and working successfully. And taps discharges in sinks must have sufficient clearance height between the tap spout and the basin overflow so no contamination of utensils occurs.

Tubes that are linked to a screw-type sink fitting can be secured by a hose adapter vacuum breaker only for low-hazard products. Climatic vacuum breakers can be used for high-hazard materials, however only if particular height and place requirements are met and the downstream outlets unobstructed.

Supervisors can define reduced-pressure concept backflow preventers with upstream and downstream shutoffs and test fittings to protect safe and clean water in continuous-pressure conditions and against high hazard contamination. Evaluation needs to take place at least two times a year to ensure, among other things, that they fulfill lead-content codes.

Manufacturers need to prepare piping, valves and fittings used in non-flammable medical gas systems as if they were to be utilized for oxygen. According to the law, makers must thoroughly clean up these products and remove all oil, grease, and other readily oxidizable material left over from manufacturing, as if the products were being gotten ready for oxygen service.

Before last assembly, technicians must thoroughly keep and handle items, consisting of capping or plugging openings, in order to avoid contamination after cleansing. They need to be re-examined internally again prior to final assembly.

Other code limitations require brazed joints to be comprised utilizing brazing filler metals that bond to the base metals being brazed. Copper-to-copper joints need to be made using copper-phosphorus brazing filler metal and no flux. Threaded joints have to be tinned or sealed with Teflon-type tape on the male threads, or other oxygen-suitable sealant.

Condition. The general condition of plumbing systems, or the level of upkeep, is a problem that is constantly present, even with brand-new systems. Regular preventive evaluation is a necessary part of any plumbing system maintenance program. Predictive maintenance strategies, such as pump vibration analysis, can discover approaching breakdowns and permit time for scheduled repair to prevent service disruptions.

Especially in high-use locations, this step will guarantee that all systems run properly with minimum downtime for repair work. Non-contact fixtures require battery and seal modifications. All valves require adjustment, O-ring and packaging replacement, gasket replacement, filter modifications, and gate, world and seat replacements from time to time to avoid leaks.

Backflow preventers, such as check valves and vacuum breakers, need routine evaluation and parts replacement to guarantee a favorable seal. Pipeline traps and strainers undergo plugging and malfunction unless they are kept tidy and clear and using parts are changed in a timely style.

With the big number and kind of equipment products in a healthcare center’s plumbing system, it is an obstacle to ensure that everything is covered often enough and not a surprises take place. This is where the upkeep history records are indispensable.

If each work order accurately and totally records the work done and time spent, these records will reveal management exactly where the very best chances for improvement lie. Supervisors likewise can run a pareto analysis of maintenance history to show, in coming down order, which equipment items have actually needed the most maintenance actions.

Usually, an 80/20 split takes place, meaning 80 per cent of the cost is spent on 20 percent of the devices items. As soon as managers figure out these high-cost products, they can perform a more comprehensive root-cause evaluation. A look at type, age, design and condition, in addition to upkeep history, can reveal covert chances for improvement.

These opportunities don’t always mean big capital investments. Initially, supervisors may consider enhancing cleansing, changing, lubricating, and preventive upkeep work material or frequency, or scheduling small upgrades of existing parts. Over the longer range, managers can consider significant capital investment, using the plumbing equipment history to evaluate return on the financial investment.

Emerging Concerns

A number of plumbing related issues seem certain to affect supervisors’ choices on defining plumbing products and performing system maintenance.

The most trusted method appears to be crafted controls. For instance, much better hand-wash systems and cleaning approaches not only could lower transmission. They also might cause individuals to improve practices and develop great practices.


Intricate medical facility plumbing circulation systems– particularly hot water and cooling tower water– have actually been linked to events of Legionnaire’s disease in those facilities. Among the particular corrective actions managers can carry out:

Don’t allow water stagnation or sediment accumulation

Ensure that water temperatures remain below 20 degrees C or above 55 degrees C.

Eliminate dead legs in piping systems.

Prevent rubber washers and gaskets.

Change greatly scaled taps and mixers, aerators, and shower heads.

Avoid shock absorbers and pipes not made of plastic or copper.

Second, SABS SANS compliance issues both hospital and non-hospital facilities. However hospitals have a much broader application of requirements for taps and flush valves that are operable with electronic sensing units, foot controls or wrist-blade levers, and compliant under-sink pipe covers.

Finally, the patient environment is getting a lot of attention as hospitals attempt to remain competitive and meet rising costs. Supervisors are thinking about up-to-date headwalls to centralize plumbing, controls and alarms because systems inside walls can generate substantial noise.

To combat this sound level, piping insulation is getting special attention. Also, more access points for testing and cleaning to guarantee that no microorganisms are hiding in piping systems is becoming a progressively common problem. And more centers are assessing extra filtration systems using chlorination and ozonation.

Drain Cleaning: 5 Questions

To make sure drain-cleaning devices can deal with the most requiring plumbing maintenance jobs in a facility, include answers to these questions in specifications:

What is the series of pipeline inside sizes to be cleaned up?

What source of power is needed? Electric? Pneumatic? Handbook?

What type of fittings are needed? Screw-type? Root cutter? Short radius for sharp turns?

What length cable television?

Are the appropriate type backflow preventers defined to protect the drinkable supply of water when utilizing flushing hoses?

When using a pressure washer for drain cleaning, the two most important concerns to ask before choosing nozzles are: What is the machine’s circulation in litres per minute? What is the device’s pressure?

Greater flow rates lead to faster cleaning of loosened up material.

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